Fishes

Fishes

Sub Categories

Arctic char

Chars are salmonid fishes of the genus Salvelinus and are widely distributed throughout the circumpolar north from northernmost land areas to temperate regions in the south, i.e., from 84°N south to ~40°N. The distribution of the Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, is shown in Figure 6.1. They occur across a broad range of environments and habitats, and are prominent components of northern aquatic ecosystems including freshwater, estuarine, and nearshore marine habitats. Chars are usually the only fish species present in the relatively simple freshwater ecosystems in Arctic areas north of ~75°N latitude. (Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.)

Atlantic cod

Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

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Number of fish species found in Arctic waters

LifeLinkedtoIce Number of fish species found in Arctic waters

Species numbers are approximate.

 

Drawing is of a polar cod.
Data from Christiansen et al. 2013 [207]

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

A simple sea ice food web with polar cod, amphipods, ringed seal and polar bear

LifeLinkedtoIce Simple sea ice food web

 

Polar cod feed on amphipods under the ice and rest in sheltered spaces in the ice such as the seawater wedges shown.
Based on Gradinger and Bluhm 2004 [208];

photos: Gradinger and Bluhm / UAF/NOAA/CoML (top), Shawn Harper/ UAF (bottom)

 

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Polar cod and capelin in diets of thick-billed murres, comparing a recent study with 30 years ago: low, mid, and high Arctic locations in eastern Canada

LifeLinkedtoIce diets of thick billed murres

 

 

This chart shows the breakdown by species of identified fish in stomach samples of murres. Polar cod continue to dominate the diets of high Arctic murres, but capelin appear to have replaced polar cod in the low Arctic, where ice has retreated to the greatest extent. Capelin have also appeared in the mid Arctic, where the species was absent in 1985 samples but present in a third of the samples from 2007/08.
From Provencher et al. 2012 [209]

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

The fate of first-year pollock in fall and winter depends on availability of large crustacean plankton

LifeLinkedtoIce First year pollock

 

 

 

Predation, cannibalism by larger pollock, and starvation in winter increase for first-year pollock in years with earlier sea ice melt (top diagram).
From Hunt et al. 2011 [212]

 

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Comparison of the three year running average for the CBMP pelagic Arctic fish index and the Arctic Oscillation (AO).

ABA 2013 Box 01 04 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 1.4 Figure 1.

Comparison of the three year running average for the CBMP pelagic Arctic fish index and the Arctic Oscillation (AO).
Oscillation data from: http://esri.noaa.gov/psd/data/correlation/ao.data

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Selected characteristics of species occurring in the Arctic, by taxonomic group.

ABA 2013 Table 02 01 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 2.1. Selected characteristics of species occurring in the Arctic, by taxonomic group. In addition to those species listed, there are an estimated 7,100 described and as-yet undescribed species of endoparasites and several thousand groups of microorganisms.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Total landings of commercial fish species

ABA 2013 14 07 landing 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.7. Total landings of commercial fish species (x 1,000 tons) in seven Arctic Large Marine Ecosystems (source: Sherman & Hempel 2008 and SeaAroundUs Project 2010).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Schematic distribution of NE Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the Barents Sea

ABA 2013 14 10 Map 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.10. Schematic distribution of NE Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the Barents Sea a) prior to and b) during the 20th century warm period (source: Drinkwater 2011).

 

Zip file includes image og map and image of Schematic distribution of NE Atlantic cod the Barents Sea

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Differences in trophic pathways

ABA 2013 14 12 Copepods 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.12. Differences in trophic pathways based on availability of the copepod C. marshallae and the euphausiid T. raschii on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf.

(Source: Hunt et al. 2011.).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ABA 2013. Appendix 6.2

Appendix 6 2 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 6.2

 

Marine fishes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (AOAS).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ABA 2013. Appendix 6.1.1-6.1.4

 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 6.1.1-6.1.4

 

Appendix 6.1.1. Freshwater and diadromous fish species by area of occurrence within the High Arctic, Low Arctic and sub-Arctic

Appendix 6.1.2. Freshwater and diadromous fishes of the Palearctic and Nearctic regions.

Appendix 6.1.3. Occurrence of freshwater and diadromous fishes in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of the seven geographical regions referred to in the main text.

Appendix 6.1.4. Freshwater and diadromous fish species status summary for species assessed at some level of risk by country or region.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ASTI DataSet: Arctic Species Trend Index is an index that tracks trends in over 300 Arctic vertebrate species. KML Google Earth file
ASTI KML

ASTI DataSet: Arctic Species Trend Index is an index that tracks trends in over 300 Arctic vertebrate species.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

 

CAFF Created the ASTI DataSet In partnership with the CBMP, WWF, UNEP, WCMC, ZSL.

For further information the report Arctic Species Trend Index 2010: Tracking Trends in Arctic Wildlife used information from this dataset.

 

 

Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file for use with Google Earth.
The relationship between annual primary production and the ice-free period based on measurements from several sites in the Arctic
fishproduction

The relationship between annual primary production and the ice-free period based on measurements from several sites in the Arctic

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

The distribution of Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, and the location of introduced populations
arcticchar 

The distribution of Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, and the location of introduced populations

 

ZIP file includes 4 datasets:

1. Shapefile of Arctic Char distribution

2. Shapefile of Arctic Lakes

3. Shapefile of limits

4. Image file 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.
Graphics: Hugo Ahlenius

Circumpolar distribution of arctic char species complex Salvelinus alpinus, and related species.
Distribution of Arctic Char

Circumpolar distribution of arctic char species complex Salvelinus alpinus, and related species.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Documentation. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group (CAFF).

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