Disturbance

Disturbance

Cultural services, beyond those associated with provisioning services, reach people in the Arctic and around the world. Tourism is increasingly popular in the Arctic, especially on cruise ships. Tourism brings opportunities for income, as well as the potential for largely localized social and environmental disturbance. It can also create advocates for Arctic conservation among those who have experienced the region and its biodiversity first-hand. There are also many non-market values associated with the simple existence of the Arctic and its ecosystems, which many people appreciate from afar without any direct experience in the region. In a world with fewer undisturbed places, intact ecosystems such as those in the Arctic are likely to become increasingly scarce and thus increasing valuable. (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013.)

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Rate of population decline of bird colonies in the municipality of Upernavik

ABA 2013 Box 18 05 Seabirds 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 18.5 Figure 1. Rate of population decline of bird colonies in the municipality of Upernavik in relation to distance to the nearest settlement or town. The shorter the distance, the greater the rate of decline (Evans & Kampp 1991).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Trends in the five indicators considered in this chapter (Disturbance, Feedbacks and Conservation)

ABA 2013 Table 19 04 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 19.4. Trends in the five indicators considered in this chapter (Disturbance, Feedbacks and Conservation). Note that “increasing” may be regarded as positive or negative depending on the indicator.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

The trampling associated with grazing is an important driver for below ground impacts.
reindeerherding norway

A very high-resolution false color Ikonos-2 satellite image of Jauristunturit in the border zone shared by Norway and Finland. Image acquired 28 June 2001. The main vegetation type is lichen dominated tundra heath with dwarf shrubs. The difference in whiteness is due to lichen coverage, and the national border with reindeer fence visibly divides the area. The northern portion is Norway, where fruticose lichen coverage is higher. This is a consequence of different pasture management. The Norwegian side is used only in late winter when there is snow cover and no grazing or trampling occurs in summer. The Finnish area is used in early summer, when vulnerable lichen mats have been progressively trampled over several decades

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

In Russia, the main threat for the most productive post- Soviet reindeer herding areas in the Nenets and Yamalo- Nenets Autonomous Okrugs is the rapidly accelerating oil and gas extraction
reindeerherding siberia

A false color Quickbird-2 satellite image of a portion of the Bovanenkovo Gas Field on the Yamal Peninsula in West Siberia. Image acquired 4 July 2004. The construction phase began in the late 1980s. From that period onward there remain visible signs of extensive off-road vehicle traffic across the terrain. Many of those tracks have naturally revegetated and now appear as bright red, indicating dense grass- and sedge-dominated vegetation. The road network was built in the mid-1990s, which has reduced off-road traffic significantly. However, infrastructure blocks segments of migration routes for Nenets and their reindeer herds, and pasture quality can be negatively affected by road dust, petrochemicals, trash left on the tundra, and even feral dogs abandoned by workers.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

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