Mammals

Mammals

Sub Categories

Polar bear

Polar bears, Ursus maritimus, are distributed throughout the ice-covered waters of the circumpolar Arctic. This top-level predator is of interest because it is an iconic species of the Arctic and one that is particularly vulnerable to changes in sea ice. They are fundamentally dependent upon sea ice as a platform for hunting seals, travelling, finding mates, and breeding. Changes in the distribution, duration, and extent of sea-ice cover and in the patterns of freeze-up and break-up have the potential to significantly influence the population ecology of polar bears. (Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.)

Reindeer/Caribou

Wild reindeer and caribou, Rangifer tarandus, are widely distributed around the circumpolar Arctic where they play a key role in the environment, culture, and economy of the region. Their migrations often involve several hundred thousand individuals. Being sometimes so abundant, these medium-sized herbivores support a diversity of large- (grizzly bears, Ursus arctos horribilis) and medium-sized predators (wolves, Canis lupus, and wolverines, Gulo gulo), as well as scavengers. They are also an important part of the nutrient cycle in the Arctic. Terrestrial Arctic habitats are mostly nutrient-limited and reindeer and caribou, through their forage intake and output (i.e., fecal pellets), could have complex and cascading effects.
(Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.)

Lemmings

Arctic lemmings include true lemmings, of the genus Lemmus, and collared lemmings, of the genus Dicrostonyx. Although both have a circumpolar – though not identical – distribution, the two genera differ in many respects. Dicrostonyx is much more resistant to extreme low temperatures than Lemmus. Consequently, its distribution extends farther north: collared lemmings are found on the northernmost islands of the Canadian Arctic and in northern Greenland, whereas the range of true lemmings reaches down to the boreal zone and does not include Greenland or the northern Canadian islands.

(ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Heikki Henttonen, Vantaa Research Centre, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland)

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Timeline of evolution of some modern ice-associated marine mammal species

LifeLinkedtoIce Box1

 

Data from Arnason et al. 2006 [32] (seals); Xiong et al. 2009 [33] (toothed whales: beluga and narwhal); Sasaki et al. 2005 [34] (bowhead whale); Hailer et al. 2012 [30] (polar bear); McEvoy et al. 2011 [31] (humans). Drawings from Wikimedia Commons (bowhead whale: F.W. True, drawn in 1884; polar bear: P.S. Foresman)

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Declining fall weights of female polar bears, western Hudson Bay, 1980 to 2007

LifeLinkedtoIce Declining fall weights of female polar bear

Body weights were estimated for females on their own, and thus likely to be pregnant.

Source: Stirling and Derocher 2012 [269]

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Trends in body condition for the Baffin Bay polar bear subpopulation and relationship with sea ice conditions, 1977 to 2010

LifeLinkedtoIce Trends in body condition Baffin Bay polar bear

The sea ice measurement used represents sea ice habitat available to the bears mid-May to mid-October.

 

“0” means no trend. “NA” means not enough data to analyze.
Source: Rode et al. 2012 [279]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Number of polar bear maternity dens observed on Hopen Island in relation to the date of sea ice formation the previous autumn

LifeLinkedtoIce Polar bear maternity dens

Source: Derocher et al. 2011 [329]

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Arctic marine mammals rely on a diversity of ice habitats and prey items

LifeLinkedtoIce Arctic marine mammals

 

Based on Laidre et al. 2008 [266], revisions based on Stirling 1980 [40], Gilchrist and Robertson 2000 [256] for polar bear habitats; Stirling 1980 [40], Laidre and Heide-Jorgensen 2011 [281], Laidre et al. 2004 [302] for narwhal habitats and diet; Loseto et al. 2009 [303] for beluga diet; Lawson and Hobson 2000 [304], Hammill et al. 2005 [305] for harp seal diet 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

ABA 2013. Appendix 3.1

ABA Appendix 3 1

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013. Appendix 3.1 Terrestrial Mammals.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ABA 2013. Appendix 3.2

ABA Appendix 3 2

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 3.2 Marine Mammals

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Global patterns of species richness for mammals (A) and birds (B).

ABA 2013 02 01 Global patterns of species richness mammals and birds 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 2.1. Global patterns of species richness for mammals (A) and birds (B). Maps produced by the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Selected characteristics of species occurring in the Arctic, by taxonomic group.

ABA 2013 Table 02 01 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 2.1. Selected characteristics of species occurring in the Arctic, by taxonomic group. In addition to those species listed, there are an estimated 7,100 described and as-yet undescribed species of endoparasites and several thousand groups of microorganisms.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Number of terrestrial mammal species occupying low and high Arctic zones in each of the circumpolar Arctic regions

ABA 2013 03 01 Terrestiral Mammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.1. Number of terrestrial mammal species occupying low and high Arctic zones in each of the circumpolar Arctic regions. Data are summarized from Appendix 3.1.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Number of marine mammal species in Arctic marine regions

ABA 2013 03 02 Marine Mammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.2. Number of marine mammal species in Arctic marine regions classified by resident species (n = 11 total) or all species (including seasonal visitors, n = 35 total).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Summary of historical population estimates for 22 circumpolar caribou and wild reindeer herds

ABA 2013 Table 03 01 caribou reindeer 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 3.1. Summary of historical population estimates for 22 circumpolar caribou and wild reindeer herds. Data courtesy of Circum-Arctic Rangifer Monitoring Assessment Network (CARMA) and D.E. Russell & A. Gunn; http://www.carmanetwork.com/display/public/home. Data vary substantially among herds and over time in accuracy and precision, and represent only general patterns of abundance.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Summary of major features of small rodent population dynamics at circumpolar monitoring sites with rodent focus.

ABA 2013 Table 03 02 Rodent 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 3.2. Summary of major features of small rodent population dynamics at circumpolar monitoring sites with rodent focus. In addition, reports of relative abundance of small rodents in association with breeding bird studies from approximately the last 15 years can be found at the Arctic Birds Breeding Conditions Survey: http://www.arcticbirds.net

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Lemming abundance trends

ABA 2013 Box 03 01 LemmingAbundance 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 3.1 Figure1. Temporal changes in lemming abundance at various circumpolar sites: A)Taymyr Peninsula, Russia (Siberian brown lemming, stars are years with unquantifi ed high densities; data courtesy of B. Ebbinge & I. Popov); B) Banks Island, Canada (Nearctic collared lemming and Nearctic brown lemming; data courtesy of Parks Canada and L. Nguyen); C) Bylot Island, Canada (Nearctic brown lemming in wet (black circles) and mesic (open circles) habitats; data courtesy G. Gauthier); D) NE Greenland (Nearctic collared lemming at Traill Island (black triangles) and Zackenberg (open triangles); data courtesy of B. Sittler and N.M. Schmidt).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Migratory tundra caribou trends

ABA 2013 Box 03 02 CaribouAbundance 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 3.2 Figure1. Recent time series abundance estimates (figures in thousands of animals) for some migratory tundra caribou and wild reindeer herds (data courtesy of Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network (CARMA), and Russell & Gunn 2012).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Main ecological relationships

ABA 2013 03 03 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.3. Main ecological relationships linking humans, terrestrial carnivorous mammals and their shared prey, as well as some of the emotions felt by humans towards carnivores.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Diversity of terrestrial carnivorous mammals across the circumpolar Arctic

ABA 2013 03 04 Diversity 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.4. Diversity of terrestrial carnivorous mammals across the circumpolar Arctic and sub-Arctic (based on IUCN distribution maps http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/mammals).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

 Examples of historical and recent distribution changes observed in terrestrial carnivorous mammals in the Arctic.

ABA 2013 Table 03 03 Carnivorous 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.4. Diversity of terrestrial carnivorous mammals across the circumpolar Arctic and sub-Arctic (based on IUCN distribution maps http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/mammals).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Regions used to enumerate Arctic marine mammal species

ABA 2013 03 05 MarineMammal 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.5. Regions used to enumerate Arctic marine mammal species. High Arctic and low Arctic marine boundaries are shown with solid and dashed lines, respectively. These were used to define areas in Appendix 3.2. We do not include species that only use sub-Arctic waters, except for the seasonally ice covered Sea of Okhotsk, entirely within the sub-Arctic, where several populations of core Arctic marine mammals occur. Note that while populations and species are enumerated within regions, individuals frequently cross several regional boundaries.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Species richness of marine mammals

ABA 2013 03 06 MarineMammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.6. Species richness of marine mammals (n = 11 core Arctic marine mammals only) in high and low Arctic waters.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Species richness map of marine mammal

ABA 2013 03 07 MarineMammal 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.7. Species richness map of marine mammal that are present or seasonally occur in low and high Arctic waters at any time of the year (n = 35).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Subpopulations or stocks for each true Arctic marine mammal together with abundance estimate

ABA 2013 Table 03 05 MarineMammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 3.5. Subpopulations or stocks for each true Arctic marine mammal together with abundance estimate (abundance may be from dedicated survey with 95% CI, ballpark/rough estimate, or simulated from Population Viability Analysis). Year for estimate is given together with known trend in abundance (increasing, decreasing, stable or unknown). See text for rates.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Distribution (per cent) of domesticated reindeer on countries of the circumpolar North

ABA 2013 18 01 Reindeer 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 18.1. Distribution (per cent) of domesticated reindeer on countries of the circumpolar North (www.reindeerportal.org).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Numbers (× 1,000) of reindeer in the main reindeer husbandry areas of Russia, 1990, 2000 and 2010.

ABA 2013 18 02 ReindeerRussia 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 18.2. Numbers (× 1,000) of reindeer in the main reindeer husbandry areas of Russia, 1990, 2000 and 2010.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Reindeer populations (x 1,000) in selected Arctic countries, 1990, 2000 and 2007

ABA 2013 18 03 ReindeerArctic 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 18.3. Reindeer populations (x 1,000) in selected Arctic countries, 1990, 2000 and 2007 (www.reindeerportal.com).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Numbers of hunters seabirds/caribou

ABA 2013 18 05 Hunters 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 18.5. a) Numbers of commercial hunters (pink) versus number of recreational hunters (blue) who have reported harvest of seabirds since 1993 in Greenland; b) Numbers of Greenland hunters who have reported harvest of caribou since 1993

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ASTI DataSet: Arctic Species Trend Index is an index that tracks trends in over 300 Arctic vertebrate species. KML Google Earth file
ASTI KML

ASTI DataSet: Arctic Species Trend Index is an index that tracks trends in over 300 Arctic vertebrate species.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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CAFF Created the ASTI DataSet In partnership with the CBMP, WWF, UNEP, WCMC, ZSL.

For further information the report Arctic Species Trend Index 2010: Tracking Trends in Arctic Wildlife used information from this dataset.

 

 

Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file for use with Google Earth.
Wild Rangifer populations: population peak compared to today (millions of animals)
rangifer chart

Wild Rangifer populations: population peak compared to today (millions of animals)

 

ZIP file includes 2 datasets:

1. Excel file

2. Image file

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is 
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.
Graphics: Hugo Ahlenius

 
Nucleotide diversity estimates based on the complete sequences of mitochondrial genome in the collared lemming indicate how past climate has structured the genetic component of biodiversity.
geneticdiversity

Nucleotide diversity estimates based on the complete sequences of mitochondrial genome in the collared lemming indicate how past climate has structured the genetic component of biodiversity. Lower diversity in regions (green) affected by the northward forest expansion during the Holocene warm climatic events [20] compared to Western Beringia, where there was no forest expansion, suggests a reduction of effective size due to regional range contractions during warming events in the Holocene

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

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i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

Circumpolar map of all polar bear subpopulation as recognized by the IUCN/Polar Bear Specialist Group in 2009 (PBSG 2010a). Total area covered = 24 mill. km(2).
Fig00-allpops

Circumpolar map of all polar bear subpopulation as recognized by the IUCN/Polar Bear Specialist Group in 2009 (PBSG 2010a). Total area covered = 24 mill. km2.

 

ZIP file includes 20 image(PDF) files of each area.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
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Development of a pan-arctic monitoring plan for polar bears: background paper and should be cited as:
Vongraven, D and Peacock, E. Development of a pan-Arctic monitoring plan for polar bears:background paper. Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme, CAFF Monitoring Series Report No.1, January 2011, CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. ISBN 978-9935-431-01-1


Data Source: IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group

Alternative delineations between Canadian polar bear subpopulations, called designatable units, based on “broad patterns of polar bear biodiversity”
Fig20-Thiemann-pbearcanadakart

Alternative delineations between Canadian polar bear subpopulations, called designatable units, based on “broad patterns of polar bear biodiversity” (adapted from Thiemann et al. 2008a).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

Development of a pan-arctic monitoring plan for polar bears: background paper and should be cited as:
Vongraven, D and Peacock, E. Development of a pan-Arctic monitoring plan for polar bears:background paper.

Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme, CAFF Monitoring Series Report No.1, January 2011, CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. ISBN 978-9935-431-01-1


Data Source: IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group

Arctic September sea ice extent from observations (red line) and 13 IPCC AR4 climate models
Polar bear Arctic September sea ice

Arctic September sea ice extent from observations (red line) and 13 IPCC AR4 climate models (updated from Stroeve et al. 2007).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

Development of a pan-arctic monitoring plan for polar bears: background paper and should be cited as:
Vongraven, D and Peacock, E. Development of a pan-Arctic monitoring plan for polar bears:background paper.

Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme, CAFF Monitoring Series Report No.1, January 2011, CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. ISBN 978-9935-431-01-1

Status of polar bear subpopulations and level of general knowledge: Open Office format
Status of polar bear subpopulations and level of general knowledge

Status of polar bear subpopulations and level of general knowledge.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

Development of a pan-arctic monitoring plan for polar bears: background paper and should be cited as:
Vongraven, D and Peacock, E. Development of a pan-Arctic monitoring plan for polar bears:background paper.

Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme, CAFF Monitoring Series Report No.1, January 2011, CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. ISBN 978-9935-431-01-1

Status of polar bear subpopulations and level of general knowledge: PDF format
Status of polar bear subpopulations and level of general knowledge

Status of polar bear subpopulations and level of general knowledge.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

Development of a pan-arctic monitoring plan for polar bears: background paper and should be cited as:
Vongraven, D and Peacock, E. Development of a pan-Arctic monitoring plan for polar bears:background paper.

Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme, CAFF Monitoring Series Report No.1, January 2011, CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. ISBN 978-9935-431-01-1

The distribution and observed trends of wild Rangifer populations throughout the circumpolar Arctic
rangifer map

The distribution and observed trends of wild Rangifer populations throughout the circumpolar Arctic

(data from the wild Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, CARMA).

Note: Wild boreal forest reindeer have not been mapped by CARMA and thus are not represented here

 

ZIP file includes 2 datasets:
1. Shapefile
2. Image

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.
Graphics: Hugo Ahlenius

Distribution and current trend of polar bear subpopulations throughout the circumpolar Arctic
polarbear

Distribution and current trend of polar bear subpopulations throughout the circumpolar Arctic

 

ZIP file includes 2 datasets:
1. Shapefile
2. Image 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is 
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.
Graphics: Hugo Ahlenius

 

Data Source: IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group

In Russia, the main threat for the most productive post- Soviet reindeer herding areas in the Nenets and Yamalo- Nenets Autonomous Okrugs is the rapidly accelerating oil and gas extraction
reindeerherding siberia

A false color Quickbird-2 satellite image of a portion of the Bovanenkovo Gas Field on the Yamal Peninsula in West Siberia. Image acquired 4 July 2004. The construction phase began in the late 1980s. From that period onward there remain visible signs of extensive off-road vehicle traffic across the terrain. Many of those tracks have naturally revegetated and now appear as bright red, indicating dense grass- and sedge-dominated vegetation. The road network was built in the mid-1990s, which has reduced off-road traffic significantly. However, infrastructure blocks segments of migration routes for Nenets and their reindeer herds, and pasture quality can be negatively affected by road dust, petrochemicals, trash left on the tundra, and even feral dogs abandoned by workers.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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The data can be downloaded freely.

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i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

Distribution and population status of polar bear Ursus maritimus in the Arctic
Distribution of Polar Bear

Distribution and population status of polar bear Ursus maritimus in the Arctic.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Documentation. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group (CAFF).

Source:  IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group 1998

Areas of high population densities of different groups of marine vertebrates in the Beringia Region.
Areas of high population densities of different groups of marine vertebrates in Beringia Region

Areas of high population densities of different groups of marine vertebrates in the Beringia Region.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Documentation. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group (CAFF) 1998. 


Data Source: IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group

Distribution of Dicrostonyx lemmings in the Arctic.
Lemmings Distribution of Dicrostonys Lemmings in the Arctic

Distribution of Dicrostonyx lemmings in the Arctic.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Documentation. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group (CAFF).


Globally threatened species and populations within the Arctic Region.
Mammals Globally threatened species and populations within the Arctic Region

Globally threatened species and populations within the Arctic Region.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Documentation. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group (CAFF).

Source: Hilton-Taylor 2000.
Distribution of Lemmus lemmings in the Arctic.
Lemmings Distribution of Lemmus lemmings in the Arctic

Distribution of Lemmus lemmings in the Arctic.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Documentation. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group (CAFF).

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