Invertebrate

Invertebrate

The Arctic Ocean is here defined as the areas north of the Bering Strait on the Pacific side and areas with consistent seasonal sea ice cover on the Atlantic side. The known marine invertebrate fauna of this area comprises c. 5,000 species, representing at least 24 phyla with representatives in all three marine realms: sea ice, pelagic and benthic. About 50% of the Arctic Ocean overlays continental shelf areas at water depths ranging from 0-500 m. This Arctic Shelf constitutes 31% of
the total shelf area of the world. More than 90% of the known Arctic invertebrate species occur in the benthic realm. As for terrestrial environments, the most species rich taxon in all realms is Arthropoda, with most species among crustaceans, i.e. >1,500 species according to a recent estimate. Other species-rich taxonomic groups are Annelida, mainly bristle worms (Polychaeta), moss animals (Bryozoa) and Mollusca, including bivalves (Bivalvia) and snails (Gastropoda). Among the meiobenthos (small-sized benthic metazoans, < 1 mm) the predominant groups are free-living nematodes (Nematoda), followed by harpacticoids (Copepoda: Harpacticoida). In terms of abundance and biomass, nematodes and harpacticoid copepods typically dominate the meiofauna (as they do elsewhere), while polychaetes, bivalves and amphipods typically dominate the macrofauna, and echinoderms and crustaceans dominate the megafauna. (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013.)

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Amphipods attached to ice crystals in Arctic coastal fast ice and two common ice amphipod species

LifeLinkedtoIce Amphipods

 

 

The large Gammarus amphipod grows up to about 6 cm in length.
Photos: Shawn Harper/UAF (left photo); B.Bluhm/UAF/CoML (Apherusa); Raskoff/MPC (Gammarus)

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

Primary production of ice algae and phytoplankton from December to June, in a fjord near Nuuk, Greenland, 2005/2006

LifeLinkedtoIce Algae and phytoplankton

Ice algae accounts for less than 1% of the annual primary production at this coastal location, but the bloom occurs at least a month before any primary production is available from phytoplankton. Farther offshore, ice algae contribute much more to the total annual production: as much as over 50% [4]. 

 

Adapted from Mikkelsen et al. 2008 [58]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

Melosira arctica under ice and on the ocean floor

LifeLinkedtoIce Melosira arctica under ice and on the ocean floor

Photos: M. Fernandez-Mendez (left) and A. Boetius/Alfred Wegener Institute (right); Seija Hällfors/ Finnish Environment Institute SYKE (inset microscopic view of the diatom Melosira arctica)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7. 

Change in ecosystem structure that may result from reduction of sea ice and related temperature changes: an illustration based on the Chukchi Sea food web

LifeLinkedtoIce Sea ice Ecosystem structure

Change in ecosystem structure that may result from reduction of sea ice and related temperature changes: an illustration based on the Chukchi Sea food web 

 

Adapted from Hopcroft et al. 2008 [95], based on Carroll and Carroll 2003 [98] 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

 

 

95. Hopcroft, R., Bluhm, B., and Gradinger, R. (eds). 2008. Arctic Ocean synthesis: Analysis of climate change impacts in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas with strategies for future research. Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Alaska, and North Pacific Research Board, Fairbanks, Alaska.

 

98. Carroll, M.L., and Carroll, J. 2003. The Arctic seas. In Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems. Edited by Black, K.D., and Shimmield, G.B. CRC Press, Boca Raton, US. pp. 127-156.

 

 

Diversity of Arctic marine phytoplankton: based on surveys in the Russian Arctic

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton

 

The number of species depends partly on what has been studied. Proportions vary somewhat around the Arctic, but diatoms and dinoflagellates are the most diverse groups everywhere. The greatest sampling effort has been in the Laptev Sea, Hudson Bay, and the Norwegian sector of the Barents Sea. Species shown are among the most commonly recorded.
Data from Poulin et al. 2011 [65]

Photos (taken through light microscopes): clockwise from top right Dr. Gerhard Dieckmann/Alfred Wegener Institute; Gert Hansen/Nordic Microalgae (www.nordicmicroalgae.org); Alexandra/Alfred Wegener Institute; Marine Productivity
Laboratory, Fisheries and Oceans Canada

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Trends in water temperature and salinity (A) and density of phytoplankton of two size ranges (B), Canada Basin, 2004 to 2008

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton density

Samples are from the upper ocean during summer. Points on the graphs are averages of data for 23 stations that were distributed across the Canada Basin.

From Li et al. 2009 [127]

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Arctic benthic diversity

LifeLinkedtoIce Arctic benthic diversity

 

There are about 4,500 known species of multi-cellular benthic invertebrates, with highest diversity in the shelf areas, and about 160 to 210 species of seaweeds (macroalgae).

 

Based on Josefson et al. 2013 [73] and Bluhm et al. 2011 [63]
Photo: Benthic samples from the Chukchi Sea, 2004–2005 Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic (photo by B. Bluhm/UAF/RUSALCA 2004)

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Zones of high benthic biomass correspond with marginal ice zones: Barents, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi seas, based on long-term Russian datasets

LifeLinkedtoIce Zones of high benthic biomass

 

 

The lines are “isolines”, meaning they connect areas with the same value of benthic biomass (left column) or ice concentration (right column). They are displayed the same way a topographic map shows elevation contours. For example, the area enclosed by the isoline labeled 500 in the map in the lower left hand corner has a biomass of 500 g/m2 or more. The zones with average long durations of 20% ice cover (right column) are polynyas and marginal ice zones associated with land-fast ice. Statistical analysis reveals that the zones of high biomass are significantly associated with the zones of long duration of ice-edge conditions.

 

Figure prepared for this report by S. Denisenko, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, based on archived data from 950 stations from scientific expeditions conducted 1932–1935, 1968–1970, 1975–1986 and 1993–1995. Ice concentration data from Schlitzer 2012 [173], calculated as 1960–1990 averages

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

A simple sea ice food web with polar cod, amphipods, ringed seal and polar bear

LifeLinkedtoIce Simple sea ice food web

 

Polar cod feed on amphipods under the ice and rest in sheltered spaces in the ice such as the seawater wedges shown.
Based on Gradinger and Bluhm 2004 [208];

photos: Gradinger and Bluhm / UAF/NOAA/CoML (top), Shawn Harper/ UAF (bottom)

 

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Trends in the timing of peak phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic Ocean, 1979–2009

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton blooms

 

 

The rate of change is very rapid at some locations. For example, the peak algal bloom occurred in early September in Foxe Basin and in the Kara Sea in the mid-1990s but had shifted to mid-July by 2009, a change of about 50 days.
Source: Kahru et al. 2011 [214]

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Phytoplankton bloom in the southern Barents Sea, August 14, 2011 and relationship between timing of blooms and sea ice

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton bloom Barents Sea small

 

The color in this satellite image is created by a massive phytoplankton bloom. The milky blue areas indicate a high abundance of coccolithophores, plankton that are plated with white calcium carbonate. Other colors may be from other plankton types and suspended sediment. The graphs, which are from a study over approximately the same area, show the relationship between the timing of blooms and the timing of sea ice. Diatoms (indicated by chlorophyll concentrations) dominate the earlier bloom that is associated with ice melt. Coccolithophores (indicated by calcite concentrations) dominate late summer bloom. They thrive in stable surface layers of warm, low-salinity, low-nutrient water. Coccolithophore blooms are becoming more frequent in the southern Barents Sea and expanding northward to the high Arctic.
All data shown are based on analysis of satellite imagery. This natural-color image was taken by the Moderate Resolution
Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Aqua satellite.
NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC; graph from Signorini and McClain 2009 [153]; caption based on Signorini and McClain 2009 [153], Carlowicz and Riebeek 2012 [154] 

 

  

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Changes in benthic communities in two Arctic fjords, Svalbard, Norway: photographs from 1984 and 2006

LifeLinkedtoIce Changes in benthic communities small

 

The photographs represent benthic communities in the two fjords before and after abrupt ecosystem changes characterized by a shift from rock-encrusting types of algae to taller filamentous (C) and leaf-like (D) forms of seaweed. Areas within the white lines are covered by these seaweeds. The invertebrate communities changed at the same time. In Kongsfjord, for example, the sea anemones that were common before this regime shift (visible in A) declined rapidly and sea urchins increased.
From Kortsch et al. 2012 [172]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

The fate of first-year pollock in fall and winter depends on availability of large crustacean plankton

LifeLinkedtoIce First year pollock

 

 

 

Predation, cannibalism by larger pollock, and starvation in winter increase for first-year pollock in years with earlier sea ice melt (top diagram).
From Hunt et al. 2011 [212]

 

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Arctic marine mammals rely on a diversity of ice habitats and prey items

LifeLinkedtoIce Arctic marine mammals

 

Based on Laidre et al. 2008 [266], revisions based on Stirling 1980 [40], Gilchrist and Robertson 2000 [256] for polar bear habitats; Stirling 1980 [40], Laidre and Heide-Jorgensen 2011 [281], Laidre et al. 2004 [302] for narwhal habitats and diet; Loseto et al. 2009 [303] for beluga diet; Lawson and Hobson 2000 [304], Hammill et al. 2005 [305] for harp seal diet 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Representative diatom profiles from the circumpolar Arctic showing the character and timing of recent assemblage shifts.

ABA 2013 13 05 Diatom 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 13.5. Representative diatom profiles from the circumpolar Arctic showing the character and timing of recent assemblage shifts.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Occurrence and pigmentation of water fleas Daphnia sp. in ponds with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations.

ABA 2013 13 06 Daphnia 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 13.6. Occurrence and pigmentation of water fleas Daphnia sp. in ponds with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Differences in trophic pathways

ABA 2013 14 12 Copepods 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.12. Differences in trophic pathways based on availability of the copepod C. marshallae and the euphausiid T. raschii on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf.

(Source: Hunt et al. 2011.).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Seasonal succession of ice cover, phytoplankton, copepods and protozooplankton

ABA 2013 14 13 Icecover 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.13. Seasonal succession of ice cover, phytoplankton, copepods and protozooplankton (ciliates and dinoflagellates) in Disko Bay, W Greenland, 1996-1997. Sea ice cover is represented in white in a). The vertical blue line indicates the time when the bulk of Calanus spp. biomass leaves the surface layer giving room for an additional peak in protozooplankton biomass. (Adapted from Madsen et al. 2001 and Levinsen et al. 2000.)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Conceptual model of seasonal plankton succession in W Greenland

ABA 2013 14 14 Plankton 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.14. Conceptual model of seasonal plankton succession in W Greenland in a) current and b) future warming conditions.(Adapted from Rysgaard & Glud 2007.)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Metazoan meiofauna densities

ABA 2013 08 10 MetazoanMeiofauna 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.10. Metazoan meiofauna densities along the bathymetric HAUSGARTEN transect from 2000 to 2004 (redrawn from Hoste et al. 2007).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Biogeographic borders in the Barents Sea

ABA 2013 08 09 BarentsSea 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.9. Biogeographic borders in the Barents Sea based on species distributions of bryozoans. Average position of the border with 50:50% of Atlantic boreal and Arctic species numbers is indicated by the pink line, and the red and green lines indicate the extreme positions of the border in cold and warm periods respectively. Area III between them is the transitional zone between the Atlantic boreal and the Arctic regions. Thus, area I always has > 50% Atlantic boreal species, and area II always > 50% Arctic species (after Denisenko 1990).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Taxonomic composition of the epi-/megafauna

ABA 2013 08 08 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.8. Taxonomic composition of the epi-/megafauna at the HAUSGARTEN observatory from photographic transects covering different water depth ranges (A: 1,313-1,316 m; B: 1,642-1,688 m; C: 2,432-2,629 m; D: 2,965-3,907 m; E: 5,333-5,404 m) (Soltwedel et al. 2009a). “Morphotypes” denote unrecognised organisms

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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The data can be downloaded freely.

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Stacked bar plot showing the number of nematode species

ABA 2013 08 07 NematodeSpecies 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.7. Stacked bar plot showing the number of nematode species for each dominant genus at different water depths along the bathymetric HAUSGARTEN transect (Hoste 2006).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Map of the Russian Arctic showing the distribution of meiofauna diversity

ABA 2013 08 06 Meiofauna 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.6. Map of the Russian Arctic showing the distribution of meiofauna diversity for different areas (from Spiridonov et al. 2011). Sizes of the cakes relates to total number of taxa indicated above each cake.

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Photographs of the sea floor from eastern Baffin Bay in W Greenland

08 05A 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.5. Photographs of the sea floor from eastern Baffin Bay in W Greenland, showing different benthic habitats. (A) soft mud, (B) soft sediment with shells and stones, (C) gravelly bottom and (D) boulder bottom (from Sejr et al. 2011).

 

Zip file includes 4 image files

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Species richness estimates of the bryozoan fauna in the Eurasian seas

ABA 2013 Table 08 03 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 8.3. Species richness estimates of the bryozoan fauna in the Eurasian seas of the Arctic and in the Canadian Arctic archipelago (Denisenko 2011).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Figure 8.4

ABA 2013 08 04 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.4. Upper panel: Numbers of annelid species recorded from each of seven regional Arctic seas (Sirenko 2001). Note: current values are expected to be somewhat higher, but updated records in this format are not available at this time. Lower panel: Proportions of annelid species numbers from each of seven regional Arctic seas and of the total number of all species recorded from the Arctic seas. Data source as for panel above.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Summary of the Arctic crustacean fauna inventory

ABA 2013 Table 08 02 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 8.2. Summary of the Arctic crustacean fauna inventory (based on Sirenko 2001 list) updated with new descriptions and distribution records from the Census of Marine Life (Bluhm et al. 2011a). Crustacea represent the largest component of the Arthropoda, which is the most speciose phylum in the Arctic.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

The number of macrofauna species in the Laptev Sea

ABA 2013 08 03 Macrofauna 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.3. The number of macrofauna species in the Laptev Sea over time, likely illustrating eff ects of increased sampling effort.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Map of the Arctic Ocean with macro zoobenthos

ABA 2013 08 01 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.1. Map of the Arctic Ocean with superimposed stacked bars representing species numbers of macro zoobenthos from different shelf sea areas: Crustacea+Mollusca+Echinodermata (blue) and Annelida (black). Compiled by Piepenburg et al. (2011).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Map of the Arctic Ocean showing the distribution of species richness of Bryozoa

ABA 2013 08 02 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 8.2. Map of the Arctic Ocean showing the distribution of species richness of Bryozoa for different shelf seas along the Eurasian continental shelf. 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Overview of free-living invertebrate taxa in the Arctic Ocean area

ABA 2013 Table 08 01 Invertebrates 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 8.1. Overview of free-living invertebrate taxa in the Arctic Ocean area as defined in Fig. 6.4 in Christiansen & Reist, Chapter 6, but excluding the Bering and Norwegian Seas. Estimates based on Sirenko (2001) and updates of ArcOD researchers (from Gradinger et al. 2010a).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Mean population densities of the numerically dominant soil invertebrate

ABA 2013 Table 07 07 Densitie 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 7.7. Mean population densities (1,000/m2) of the numerically dominant soil invertebrate groups across a variety of habitats and dates at selected Arctic sites. 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Wider distribution patterns of species within selected arthropod taxa from Greenland

ABA 2013 Table 07 06 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 7.6. Wider distribution patterns of species within selected arthropod taxa from Greenland, showing affinities with the Holarctic, Nearctic and Palearctic regions (from Makarova & Böcher 2009).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Biodiversity of springtail species within and among biogeographic sectors

ABA 2013 07 04 Springtail 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 7.4. Biodiversity of springtail species within and among biogeographic sectors of the low (upper case letter) and high Arctic (lower case letter).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

The number of species of springtail and butterfly

ABA 2013 Table 07 05 Collembola Butterflies 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 7.5. The number of species of springtail and butterfly species recorded from the diff erent sectors of the Arctic (from Babenko 2005 and Chernov & Tatarinov 2006). Data for the high Arctic springtails alone are given in parentheses. Note that not all sectors have been sampled with equal thoroughness. For butterflies, the Ural and Western Siberian sectors are combined..

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Relationship between numbers of spider, carabid beetle and butterfly

ABA 2013 07 03 Temperature 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 7.3. Relationship between numbers of spider, carabid beetle and butterfly species and mean July temperature at sites along south to north transects in Taimyr, Middle Siberia and Beringia (based on data from Chernov 1995, Chernov et al. 2000, Chernov & Makarova 2008).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Habitat preferences of common Arctic springtail species selected

ABA 2013 Table 07 04 Habitat 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 7.4. Habitat preferences of common Arctic springtail species selected to illustrate variation in the range of habitats utilised, often by related species. Data are from Fjellberg (1994) with nomenclature updated from Babenko & Fjellberg (2006).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

 The number of species of testate amoebae unique to particular habitat types

ABA 2013 07 02 Testate Amoebae 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 7.2. The number of species of testate amoebae unique to particular habitat types, expressed as a percentage of the total species found within that habitat. Data are from several sites spread across the Arctic compiled by Beyens & Chardez (1995).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Number of species in the dominant or relatively wellstudied

ABA 2013 Table 07 03 Invertebrates 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 7.3. Number of species in the dominant or relatively wellstudied groups of invertebrates in the major biogeographical regions of the low and high Arctic. Greenland, in addition to being included within the traditional Nearctic region, is also considered as a separate unit as its fauna cannot be considered as being solely derived from the Nearctic region. 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

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