Trends in Arctic temperature and sea ice

LifeLinkedtoIce Trends in Arctic temperature and sea ice 

A. Land–Ocean Temperature Index annual means, 1880 to 2011. Data (smoothed over ten-year periods) are temperature

anomalies compared to the 1951–1980 mean. Data: NASA/GISS
B. Annual minimum ice extent, 1979–2013, based on satellite monitoring. Data are anomalies compared to the 1981–2010
mean. Data: NSIDC; methodology: Fetterer et al. 2002, updated 2009 [35]
C. Satellite image captured at the 2012 minimum of ice extent. Source: NASA/Goddard Scientific Visualization Studio
D. Sea ice cover over the past 1,450 years. The blue line is based on proxy records (mainly ice cores), while the dotted line
is based on historical ice records and satellite monitoring. Proxy data were calibrated against modern observations. Data
were smoothed statistically over 40-year periods. The record extends to 2008. Source: Kinnard et al. 2011 [13]
E. Distribution of multi-year ice, 2008 compared with 1985–2000 mean. Source: NASA no date [36] 



Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference it source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.


13. Kinnard, C., Zdanowicz, C.M., Fisher, D.A., Isaksson, E., de Vernal, A., and Thompson, L.G. 2011. Reconstructed changes in Arctic sea ice over the past 1,450 years. Nature 479(7374): 509-U231. doi:10.1038/nature10581.

35. Fetterer, F., Knowles, K., Meier, W., and Savoie, M. 2002, updated 2009. Sea Ice Index. Digital media. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado.

36. NASA. no date. NASA image by R. Simmon, based on data from C. Fowler, J. Maslanik, S. Drobot, and W. Emery, Arctic Regional Ice Forecasting System, University of Colorado-Boulder. Available from


Like us on Facebook
Follow us on Twitter
Subscribe to our YouTube Channel
Join our LinkedIn Group
Check us out on Google+
Follow Us on Instagam
Follow Us on Flickr